Process

Most of the glass pieces I make are kilnformed. This means that the glass is carved, cast, fused or shaped in a kiln, at temperatures of 1200 to 1600 degrees Fahrenheit. 
The glass must then be annealed, cooling at a slow, even rate so that the glass remains stable. The kiln firing on smaller pieces takes one to five days; large castings take a week or more.

Layout for Houses in sandbed kiln with fiber felt


To create figures, textures, and shapes, I sculpt in clay, wax, ceramic fiber felt, or sand. 

Fiber felt for kilncarving Tree on a Hillside​​​​​​​


Cast glass uses a plaster mold, which I make from a clay or wax form.

Glass cast for Still Standing


A piece might start from a single thought, or from a life story. 
I sketch designs expressing that thought or story, then consider how I can use glass to carry out the design. 
I do studies in clay or glass to test the methods and see how the design translates to glass.

Detail of clay relief for work in progress


Often I design by sketching or sculpting directly in the sand, clay or fiber felt from an emotion or idea. 
I might arrange glass pieces to see what they elicit from me, and rearrange as a concept emerges. 

Glass shards arranged and layered for The Waterfall


For the base of standing sculptures, I sculpt from clay and/or make a separately cast piece of glass.
With framed pieces of clear glass, I paint or digitally create a background to bring out the depth and texture of the glass. 

Painted background for Volcano Dance 


Almost all glass requires finishing work to smooth and polish the edges. This can take as long as making the piece itself.

Hand-grinding edges on figure for Out of the Depths